Ali Akbar Hashemi Bahramani

AKA: Hashemi Rafsanjani

Ali Akbar Hashemi Bahramani
علی‌اکبر هاشمی بهرمانی
4 Sep 1934
Bahraman, Rafsanjan
Male
Seminary
Yes
Died, 29 Dec 2016
17 Dec 2020
image/svg+xml ExpediencyDiscernmentCouncil SupremeLeader'sOffice GuardianCouncil Judiciary ExecutivePower Parliament Supreme Leader of the Islamic Republic of Iran General Staff ofArmed Forces Army IRGC Police(NAJA) Assembly of Expertsfor Leadership Supreme NationalSecurity Council Supreme Councilfor Cyberspace Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution IRIB
  • Member of Revolutionary Council, National (Jan 1979 - 17 Jul 1980)
  • Speaker at Parliament, National (20 Jul 1980 - 15 Aug 1989)
    • Human Rights Violation: Approval of the Hudud and Qisas bill (Sep 1982) read more
      Institution
      Parliament
      Location
      (National)
      Rights Violated
      Right to freedom from torture, Right to life
      Description

      Hashemi Rafsanjani, as the Speaker of the Islamic Consultative Assembly (parliament), he has been instrumental in passing the Hudud and Qisas bill that established and enforced brutal and inhumane punishments such as execution, amputation, and flogging.

      Sources

      The Hudud and Qisas Bill, 1982

      https://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/print_version/90591

    • Human Rights Violation: Approval of the statute of the Revolutionary Guards (6 Sep 1982) read more
      Institution
      Parliament
      Location
      (National)
      Rights Violated
      Right to freedom from torture, Right to freedom of assembly, Right to freedom of expression, Right to life
      Description

      As the Speaker of the Islamic Consultative Assembly, he has played a key role in approving the statutes of the Revolutionary Guards. Herein the Revolutionary Guards gained special powers to suppress and even eliminate political opponents, civil and human rights activists, and critics of the Islamic Republic.

      Sources

      متن اساسنامه سپاه پاسداران انقلاب اسلامی، مرکز پژوهشهای مجلس، 1361

      https://rc.majlis.ir/fa/law/show/90595

      لایه های هفت گانه سرکوب، رادیو فردا، 1397

      https://www.radiofarda.com/a/seven-layers-of-suppression-in-Islamic-republic-of-Iran/29421805.html
    • Human Rights Violation: Participation in the massacre of political prisoners (1988) read more
      Institution
      Parliament
      Location
      (National)
      Rights Violated
      Right to a fair trial, Right to life
      Description

      As the Speaker of Parliament, and the interim Friday Prayer Imam, he played a key role in the Massacre of political prisoners in the summer of 1988. By order of Ruhollah Khomeini, several thousand political and ideological prisoners , who had previously been tried and were serving their sentences, were sentenced to death in trials that were only minutes long, in August and September 1988. They were buried in mass graves. The majority of those executed were from leftist groups.

      Hashemi Rafsanjani, in his Friday sermon on 28 August, 1988 explicitly spoke about the rejection of the repentance of political prisoners, and the need to eradicate them. Within his memoirs he wrote about how the topics of Mousavi Ardabili's Friday sermon, on 5 August, 1988 were determined. In this Friday sermon, Mousavi Ardebili explicitly called for the execution of all political prisoners without trial. Hashemi also wrote in his memoirs of a meeting with the Deputy Chief Justice and Deputy Head of the Prison Organisation on 9 August, 1988, and receiving a detailed report on the "situation of the political groups in the prison" and the number of prisoners "still remained in their political position."

      Sources

      Memoirs of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, Hashemi Rafsanjani Document Centre,

      Another look: Memoirs of Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani and the removal of the narrative of the massacre of 1988, BBC Farsi, 29 July, 2011

      https://www.bbc.com/persian/iran/2011/06/110629_l13_hashemi_memoirs_ganji

  • Interim Friday Prayer Imam, Tehran (Tehran Province) (1981 - 2009)
  • Representative of the Leader in the Supreme Council of Defense, National (13 Oct 1981 - 1989)
  • The Supreme Council of Defense’s spokesperson, National (13 Oct 1981 - 1989)
  • Member Assembly of Experts for Leadership, National (1982 - 2016)
  • Deputy Commander in Chief, National (2 Jun 1988 - 1989)
  • President of the Islamic Republic, National (1989 - 1997)
    • Human Rights Violation: The assassination of dissenter intellectuals, writers and political opponents (1989 - 1997) read more
      Institution
      President
      Location
      Inside Iran and abroad
      Rights Violated
      Right to freedom from torture, Right to life
      Description

      During Hashemi Rafsanjani's presidency, his government's Ministry of Intelligence assassinated dozens of writers and political activists critical of the Islamic Republic inside Iran and abroad.  Such individuals included Ahmad Mir Alaei, Ali Akbar Saeedi Sirjani, Ghaffar Hosseini, Fereydoun Farrokhzad, Ahmad Tafazzoli, Abdolrahman Boroumand and Shapur Bakhtiar.

      On 17 September, 1992, the leaders of the Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iran (Sadegh Sharafkandi, Homayoun Ardalan, Fattah Abdoli), and Noori Dehkurdi were killed in a terrorist operation at a restaurant called Mykonos in Berlin. The trial lasted three and a half years, and German officials eventually concluded that the Iranian government was directly involved in the killings. During the trial, Abul Hassan Bani Sadr testified about the role of Rafsanjani in in the assassination and the existence of a committee called the "Special Affairs Committee", which one of its duties is to lay the groundwork and monitor the execution of political assassinations.

      An explosion at the Jewish Center in Buenos Aires in January 1994 killed 85 people and injured more than 300. Two years before that, a bomb exploded at an Israeli embassy in Argentina, killing 29 people. Argentina officially charged Iranian officials for the bombings, and a number of Islamic Republic officials, including Hashemi Rafsanjani, were put on the Interpol wanted list for their key role in the bombings.

      Sources

      Government assassinations in the Islamic Republic according to statistics, Shahed Alavi, February 2017

      https://www.aasoo.org/fa/articles/1807

      Iran: Argentinian Warrants Urge Rafsanjani's, Ex-Officials' Arrests, Radio Farda, 2006

      https://www.rferl.org/a/1072648.html

      Ex-president of Iran says Khameini gave order for killings, Irish Times, 1996

      https://www.irishtimes.com/news/ex-president-of-iran-says-khameini-gave-order-for-killings-1.79329

    • Human Rights Violation: Suppression of protesters (1992 - 1995) read more
      Institution
      President
      Location
      Shiraz, Arak, Mashhad, IslamShahr, Ghazvin
      Rights Violated
      Right to freedom of assembly, Right to life
      Description

      Following the implementation of the economic reform plan in the Hashemi government, and the 50% increase in the inflation rate, widespread protests were held in various cities of Iran, including Shiraz, Arak, Mashhad, Islamshahr and Qazvin. The protests were brutally suppressed by security forces, several protesters were executed, hundreds were detained and sentenced to flogging and long prison terms.

      Sources

      Account of the uprising of Mashhad, Islamshahr and Qazvin during the Hashemi era, Iran Wire, 2017

      https://iranwire.com/fa/features/20267

  • Head of Expediency Discernment Council, National (3 Oct 1989 - 29 Dec 2016)
  • Head of Assembly of Experts for Leadership, National (2007 - 2010)
These violations may only be part of the human rights violations that this person has been involved in. The investigation into this person's human rights record is ongoing.